SPEECH-LANGUAGE DISORDERS

KIDS

SPEECH DISORDERS

SPEECH SOUNDS DISORDER

A child's ability to physically make the sounds needed to communicate: changing, leaving off or adding sounds to words and making the speech hard to understand.

Most children make some speech errors, but a child may need speech therapy if those errors continue after reaching a certain age.

STUTTERING

The flow of speech is broken by involuntary repetitions, prolongations or hesitations of sounds and syllables.

TONGUE THRUSTS

An imbalance in the muscles of the face causing the tongue to protrude past the teeth when swallowing, speaking or at rest.

VOICE DISORDERS

Abnormal pitch, loudness or quality of the sound produced by the larynx affecting how speech is produced.

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LANGUAGE DISORDERS

PRE-SCHOOL LANGUAGE

Children develop language at different rates. However, if your child misses common benchmarks for language skills a language delay may be present.

SCHOOL-AGE LANGUAGE

Effects of school-age language disorders include: difficulty understanding and using grammar, problems choosing words to express ideas and struggling to use language in a variety of situations.

AUDITORY PROCESSING DISORDER (APD)

An impaired ability to follow auditory information despite having normal hearing.

Symptoms include difficulty understanding speech in noisy environments, following directions and distinguishing between similar sounds.

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SCHEDULE AN EVALUATION TODAY

314-968-4710

PRE-SCHOOL DEVELOPMENT

 

Speech-language development focuses on the ability to use and understand language at an age-appropriate level.

 

Children develop language at their own rate. Some kids develop faster or slower than others.

 

If your child does not seem to acquire the appropriate language skills within a few months of the average age, you should consider a speech-language evaluation.

RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE

AVERAGE AGE

The ability to understand what is being said. Typically, understanding develops ahead of expressive language. 

EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE

A child's ability to use language and to put words together into sentences to express his or herself.

1-3 MONTHS

Quiets activity when approached by sound. Looks at speaker.

Begins to differentiate cries. Smiles.

3-6 MONTHS

Turns head towards sound sources. Begins to respond to words: no-no, mama, daddy.

Babbling begins and becomes more complex each month. Laughs at play.

6-9 MONTHS

Begins to respond with gestures to words such as, "up, bye-bye, come." Recognizes own name and some common objects. Begins to show interest in pictures.

Plays speech gesture games like patty cake or peek-a-boo.

 

Uses gesture for "yes" and "no."

9-12 MONTHS

Will give toys or objects to others on verbal request. Follows simple commands: "Put that down." Will make appropriate responses to some requests: “Say bye-bye.”

First words: “mama” and “dada.” 

 

Vocalizes in varied jargon. By one year says three consistent words.

1-1.5 YEARS

Understands more and more new words each week. Understands names of body parts. Comprehends most simple commands.

Says 20 consistent words. Begins to use words rather than gestures. There is a continual, gradual increase in expressive vocabulary.

1.5-2 YEARS

Follows action word commands: run, walk. Begins comprehending personal pronouns.

 

Listens to the meaning of language, not just the intonation and single words. Answers “what, who, and where” questions by pointing.

Begins combining words into 2-3 word utterances.

Refers to self by name. Personal pronouns “me” and “mine”emerge.

2-3 YEARS

Begins to identify objects by function. Develops understanding of prepositions: on, under, front.

 

Understands possessives: boy’s coat, girl’s ball. Answers situational questions: “What do you wear when it rains?”

Counts to five.

 

Begins to use “wh” questions: "why, what, who, ect." Most people can understand conversation. Regularly relates recent past.

4-5 YEARS

Can categorize objects. Knows age at next birthday. Understands comparative such as bigger and biggest. Can answer questions about past, present and future.

Uses 5-6 word sentences. Completes 3 opposites: “A rabbit is fast, a turtle is ____.” Uses adjectives: “tiny, large, smooth.”

 

Grammar closely matches parents.

3-4 YEARS

Understands past tense. Can follow a two-part unrelated command. Knows most body parts. Can answer some “why” and “how” questions. Uses 4-5 word sentences.

Uses plural forms correctly. Can relate name and address along with age and gender.

 

Uses past and present words.

SCHOOL-AGE DEVELOPMENT

 

Language disorders in children can lead to long-term problems affecting learning, school achievement and behavior.

 

SIGNS OF LANGUAGE DISORDERS

  • Difficulty understanding and using grammar.

  • Problems understanding and choosing words to express ideas.

  • Problems understanding and using language for a variety of purposes and situations.

RECEPTIVE LANGUAGE

The ability to understand language

 

  • The ability to hear differences in sounds.  For example, “car” and “tar” mean two different things.
     

  • Being able to remember what is heard.  For example, repeating a series of words or following two-step directions.
     

  • Understanding what new vocabulary words and concepts mean.
     

  • Understanding different grammatical forms.  For example, understanding that “dog” and “dogs” mean two different things.

 

 

EXPRESSIVE LANGUAGE

The skills needed to use language

 

  • Choosing word forms and word order appropriately.  For example, saying past tense words and plurals with –ed or –s on the end. 
     

  • Choosing the best words to express a thought.  For example, saying the word “socks” instead of “stuff.”
     

  • Using a wide variety of social language functions.  For example, starting conversations, asking questions, using greetings and farewells and talking about an event.

SCHEDULE AN EVALUATION TODAY

314-968-4710

9835 Manchester Road

St. Louis, MO 63119

Tel. 314-968-4710

Fax. 314-968-4762

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